1000 Eleven South Suite 3F, Columbia, IL 62236, US

(618) 281-9739

Hands-on Educational Modules

ALF:GROW References and Resources

ALF:GROW References and Resources


Sleep and Airway references


Additional Patient Resources


Vit D and K References



IAOM Airway and Myofunctional Referral Form


Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders




Defining the anatomy of the neonatal lingual frenulum


Kotlow’s Tongue Tie Classification 


Retrospective Study of Cranial Strain Pattern Prevalence in a Healthy Population 

Elena M. Timoshkin, OMS IV; Mark Sandhouse, DO


The Dash Video


Resources for cranial reflexes






Reference for unintegrated primitive reflexes


Website to educate parents and providers on Retained Primitive Reflexes


Sesame Street YouTube video link


Success YouTube Video


Additional Literature references

Cranial and facial growth is influenced by: breathing, eating, drinking and speaking. (Boyd, 2011; Morris, 2003) 

Gradual growth is established between ages of 2 to 7 years. The vocal tract has established an adult like development by the age of 4. The skull reaches approximate adult size growth by the age of 6 and the mandible has achieved 80%-90% of maximum growth by the age of 8 years. (Page, 2003) 

Boyd, K.L. (2011) Darwinian dentistry part 1: An evolutionary perspective on the etiology of malloclusion.JAOS, 34-40

Morris, S.E. (2003) A longitudinal study of feeding and pre-speech skills from birth to three years(unpublished research study). V: New Visions.

Page, D.C. (2003) "Real" early orthodontic treatment: from birth to age 8. Funct Orthod: J Funct Jaw Orthop, 20(1-2), 48-58

(Boyd, 2011) referenced in last mail. Reported maladaptive changes to the optimal development of air way and mouth development based on genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic science has revealed similar changes in oral and airway structures as a result of changes in feeding practices and foods consumed.

Disruptions in the optimal oral development: (Guilleminault & Huang, in press; Marangu, Jowi, Aswani, Wambani, & Nduati, 2014)

  • mouth      breathing with low resting tongue position
  • enlarged      tonsils and adenoids
  • problems      with tooth eruption and decay
  • cardiac      problems
  • sleep      disordered breathing
  • persistent      tongue thrust swallow pattern

Guilleminault, C., & Huang, Y (in press). From orofacial dysfunction to dysmorphism and onset of pediatric OSA: Evidences.Sleep Med Rev. 

Marangu, D., Jowi, C., Aswani, J., Wambani, S., & Nduati, R. (2014) Prevalence and associated factors of pulmonary hypertensionin Kenyan children with adenotonsillary hypertrophy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 78(8), 1381-1386

Thumb or digit sucking may negatively influence oral and cranial development, resulting in: high narrow or asymmetrical palate, dental malocclusions and narrowed airways. (Dimberg, Lennartsson, Soderfeldt, & Bondemark, 2011; Heimer, Tornisiello Katz, & Rosenblatt, 2008)

Jaw grow and development may be restricted due to delayed or disrupted feeding skills, which may also negatively impact tooth eruption, tongue and lip development (Grace, Oddy, Bulsara, & Hands, 2017) 

***what I'd add anecdotally is the chicken or the egg here. the delayed feeding skills are the result of poorly developed lips/tongue due to possible cranial nerve dysfunction, structural or functional restrictions

Dimberg, L., Lennartsson, B., Soderfeldt, B., & Bondemark, L. (2011). Malocclusions in children at 3 and 7 years of age: A longitudinal study. Eur J Orthod, 35(1), 131-137

Heimer, M.V., Tornisiello Katz, C.R., & Rosenblatt, A. (2008). Non-nutritive sucking habits, dental malocclusions, and facial morphology in Brazilian children: A longitudinal study. Eur J Orthod, 30(6), 580-585

Oral habits (long term pacifier and/or sippy cup use, thumb or digit sucking) negatively influence the optimal growth of the orofacial and oronasal structures. To enhance and support dental interventions, these habits should be remediated, in addition to establishing nasal breathing. (He, Stavropoulos, Hagber, Hakeber, & Mohlin, 2013)

Tethered oral tissues impacting function may require release. To optimize results, trained SLP's (also add Oral Myologists) provide therapy prior to and following surgical intervention. Skilled therapuetic intervention, by the SLP, involves habilitation of: breathing, feeding, eating, drinking, swallowing, and speaking. (Ferres-Amat, et al., 2016; Marchesan, 2012)

He, T., Stavropoulos, D., Hagbert, C., Hakeber, M., & Mohlin, B. (2013) Evaluation of some anthropometric parameters in an Iranian population: Infancy through adolescence. J Craniofac Surg, 24(3), 941-945

Ferres-Amat, E., Pastor-Vera, T., Ferres-Amat, E., Mareque-Bueno, J., Prats-Armengol, J., & Ferres-Padro, E. (2016), Multidisciplinary management of ankyloglossia in childhood. Treatment of 101 cases. A protocol. Med Oral Patrol Oral Cir Bucal, 21(1), e39-47